Sunday, January 14, 2018

The urgent and ongoing importance of the message and life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

image: Wikimedia commons (link).

Martin Luther King, Jr. was born on January 15, 1929.

One of the central messages that Dr. King emphasized was the necessity of waking up and staying awake.

In an address to the graduating students of Oberlin College in 1965, entitled "Remaining Awake Through a Great Revolution," he declared, "There is nothing more tragic than to sleep through a revolution." 

In this context, he brings up the story of Rip Van Winkle, who slept for twenty years and woke up to find the picture of the king of England outside the local pub replaced by a likeness of George Washington. Then he proclaims that the revolution that was taking place today is "a social revolution, sweeping away an old order and bringing in a new," sweeping away an old order of colonialism, slavery, and racial segregation and replacing it with a new vision of freedom and human dignity.

Then he tells the young men and women of the class of 1965 that, "The great challenge facing every individual graduating today is to remain awake through this social revolution."

Those words are given all the more poignancy because, as everyone knows, Martin Luther King was brutally and treacherously murdered less than three years after the date of that speech.

For decades, the world was told that a lone gunman, probably motivated by racism, was responsible for the killing of Martin Luther King in April of 1968. However, due to the tireless efforts of researchers including human rights lawyer William Pepper in conjunction with the King family, it has now been shown beyond reasonable doubt that the official story foisted upon the public regarding the murder of Dr. King was a deliberate fabrication and that he was actually assassinated as part of a carefully-coordinated plot overseen by powerful elements of the national security apparatus controlled by forces opposed to that new vision of freedom and human dignity that was sweeping the world.

The fact that this nefarious plot continues to be downplayed by the major news media (especially during news coverage discussing the importance of Dr. King's life and work on the observation of his birthday every year) and that the wider public is largely unaware of the criminal conspiracy behind the assassination of Martin Luther King in 1968 is all the evidence we need to determine that the problems that he spoke against in the 1950s and 1960s are still very much with us today and that the subject of the life and death of Martin Luther King is not an issue of a bygone era but a very real and dramatic issue of critical importance to everyone alive today.

A civil trial held in the state of Tennessee concluded in December of 1999 that the government of the united states was guilty of carrying out a conspiracy resulting in the death of Martin Luther King, Jr. 

You can read the full details, along with extensive transcripts, in the 772-page book entitled The Plot to Kill King, by attorney William Pepper. 

You can also hear William Pepper discuss this case, and the significance of the life and cause of Martin Luther King, in numerous interviews such as this one and this one (with journalists outside of the "mainstream" outlets). You can also read this article, first published in January of 2016, by Dr. Asad Ismi entitled "Who Killed Martin Luther King? The Cover-up of the Century."

The fact that the absolutely explosive result of that 1999 civil trial which found the government guilty of the wrongful death of Dr. King remains largely unknown to this day is all the evidence that anyone needs in order to conclude without doubt that the "news" media in its current state does not exist to inform the public of the truth. 

On the contrary, it exists to keep the public asleep.

It exists to keep the public asleep to the existence of powerful elements who are opposed to the vision of freedom and human dignity that Martin Luther King proclaimed and that his life stood for. Elements which are opposed to the end of the old order of colonialism, slavery, and racial segregation and which are dedicated to preserving that old order. 

Elements that are very real and very powerful, as evidenced by their ability not only to orchestrate the complex criminal conspiracy to murder Dr. Martin Luther King, but also to cover up that murder at the time of its execution and to keep it covered up for the following fifty years -- including the eighteen years which have elapsed since the civil trial in which overwhelming evidence emerged which conclusively demonstrates the existence of such a conspiracy.

When Dr. King began his efforts, he and the brave individuals who worked and marched with him were protesting for civil rights and against legally-enforced segregation and disenfranchisement in the united states. However, as his speeches make clear, he saw this initial battle as being inseparable from the cause of human rights world-wide, and he explicitly stated that the end of legally-enforced segregation was not the ultimate goal but rather true equality of opportunity for all people, regardless of skin color or ethnicity, and the abolition of the causes of poverty for all people. 

You can read his statements on this subject in a speech delivered in May of 1964 entitled "The World's March Towards Human Rights," in which he calls for a unified effort of people regardless of skin color to make a "massive assault upon slums, inferior education, inadequate medical care: the entire culture of poverty." 

And in a 1962 address to the Negro Leadership Conference on Africa he declared the connection between the forces of segregation in this country and the forces of colonialism and exploitation in other countries, saying that, "Colonialism and segregation are nearly synonymous; they are legitimate first cousins because their common end is economic exploitation, political domination, and the debasing of human personality."

Today, these aspects of Dr. King's message are largely glossed over or even completely obscured by the same elements that work to keep the general population of men and women unaware of the criminal conspiracy that plotted to kill him and who then not only did so but kept that conspiracy suppressed using various forms of propaganda and "public relations" for fifty years. Economic exploitation, political domination, and the debasing of human personality have not abated in the fifty years since Dr. King's death -- in fact, they have in many ways accelerated dramatically.

As Martin Luther King told that graduating class of Oberlin College in 1965, "the great challenge facing every individual today is to remain awake."

Thursday, January 11, 2018

Dual-horizon myths, "End Times" prophecy, and the Abomination of Desolation

Above is a new video I've just published, entitled "Dual-horizon myths, 'End Times' Prophecy, and the Abomination of Desolation."

It discusses a special category of celestial myths in which the events in the story or scriptural passage incorporates and juxtaposes the rising of one constellation with the setting of another constellation.

To illustrate this concept, the video examines the stories of
  • The goddess Durga and the destructive demon MahishAsura, from ancient India
  • Perseus and the Gorgons, from ancient Greece
  • The sacrifice of Iphigenia, from ancient Greece, and
  • The casting out of Adam and Eve and the Serpent, from the book of Genesis
All of the above episodes, according to my analysis, can be shown to employ "dual-horizon action" in which the rising of one constellation (or set of constellations) is linked to the setting of another constellation (or set of constellations).

The video then proceeds to examine the evidence that the prophetic passages found in the scriptural texts of Daniel chapters 11 and 12, Matthew chapters 24 and 25, and Mark chapter 13 may be employing the same sort of "dual-horizon" metaphors.

The evidence from the texts themselves appears to be compelling in pointing to the conclusion that these prophecies are describing the heavenly cycles of rising and setting, as well as the seasonal cycles of shortening and lengthening days, all of which are used by the world's ancient wisdom found in the myths and sacred stories to convey profound truths about the interplay of the material realm and the Other Realm (or realms) beyond the material.

This evidence adds to the already-overwhelming (and, I would argue, conclusive) pile of evidence which argues that the ancient myths, scriptures and sacred stories of humanity -- from virtually every culture and every inhabited continent and island -- are speaking a celestial language, and an esoteric language, founded upon the heavenly cycles of the earth, the sun, the moon, the visible planets, and the stars and constellations.

It also points to the conclusion that these prophecies are not intended to be understood literally, and that they do not describe literal future events in terrestrial history, any more than other narratives found in the Biblical scriptures (or any other ancient myths from other cultures) are describing literal events in supposed past terrestrial history.

If you are interested in the evidence that connects the world's myths with the stars, I hope that you will have an opportunity to watch this video, and to share it with others who might find it helpful. While somewhat lengthy, at 54 minutes and 15 seconds, it covers a significant amount of evidence and "Star Myth theory." 

In fact, there are plenty of other celestial metaphors in the Daniel 11-12, Matthew 24-25, and Mark 13 texts that are applicable to this discussion that I had to leave out of the video for purposes of brevity! But I believe that the evidence presented should be more than enough to establish the connection to the heavenly cycles.

Once again, I would like to make clear that all of this discussion should by no means be interpreted aan argument that the ancient myths, including those contained in the Biblical scriptures as well as those from other cultures around the world, are somehow "not true." I am convinced that they contain profound truths, and that those truths are not dependent upon their being "literal and historical" in nature.

In fact, during the video, I mention the quotations from Alvin Boyd Kuhn which I have quoted many times in other previous posts, that these sacred stories are "a thousand times more precious as myths than as alleged history" (Lost Light, page 24) and that:

Bible stories [ . . . ] are a record, under pictorial forms, of that which is ever occurring as a reality of the present in all lives. They mean nothing as outward events; but they mean everything as picturizations of that which is our living experience at all times. The actors are not old kings, priests and warriors; the one actor, in every portrayal, in every scene, is the human soul. The Bible is the drama of our history here and now; and it is not apprehended in its full force and applicability until every reader discerns himself [or herself] to be the central figure in it! The Bible is about the mystery of human life. Instead of relating to the incidents of a remote epoch in temporal history, it deals with the reality of the living present in the life of every soul on earth (The Stable and the Manger, page 4).

Thursday, January 4, 2018

A conversation with Matt Belair

above: Part 1 of the video interview

Big thank you to author, athlete and coach Matt Belair of Zen Athlete and the Master Mind, Body & Spirit podcast for having me over to a wide-ranging conversation that is now up on YouTube in two  video segments.

Those two video segments can be seen by following the links below:

Part 1 (run-time is 2 hours) 

Part 2 (run-time is 8 minutes and 55 seconds)

Those videos are also embedded on this page, with Part 1 at the top of the page and Part 2 at the bottom of the page.

Because it was a video interview, I took the opportunity to show some visual charts and diagrams to help illustrate the concepts.

While some of the myths and explanations may be familiar to those who have seen or heard other interviews, there is also some material which you might not have heard me discuss before -- and, most importantly, every interviewer has different interests and different places that he or she wants to go during the conversation, so I'm sure you'll agree that this conversation with Matt Belair will bring out some different angles that have not been discussed in other videos or podcasts.

Also, special welcome to anyone visiting this site for the first time after learning about it from this interview with Matt! I hope you will take the time to explore the world of the ancient mythology that forms a precious inheritance for each culture on our planet and which preserves profound wisdom for our benefit and blessing. I am convinced that we can hear their message more readily when we listen to them in the language that they are actually speaking -- and I am equally convinced that the language they are speaking is an esoteric language and a metaphorical language, and that it is a celestial language, one that is built upon the heavenly cycles and motions of the sun, the moon, the visible planets, and the stars.

My primary website at contains links to dozens of videos, myth discussions, previous podcasts, and other material -- and the blog itself is fully searchable and now numbers over 1,000 entries.

Below are a few helpful links to previous posts containing further discussion on some of the subjects that came up during this interview with Matt, including:

I hope that you will enjoy this conversation with Matt Belair, and if this is your first time visiting this site, I hope that you will stop by often!

You can subscribe to Matt's YouTube channel here, and you can subscribe to my YouTube channel here, if you would like to be notified when a new video is posted in either of those places.

This video interview was recorded on December 21st, 2017.

below: Part 2 of the video interview

Saturday, December 30, 2017

A connection between the book of Ezekiel and the Iliad, via the planet Mars

Special thanks to a new friend who saw the video about the Vision of Ezekiel published on August 31, 2017, and wrote to ask about some other passages in Ezekiel.

One of the episodes he asked about is described in Ezekiel 4, in which the prophet is instructed to lay a siege against a tile representing the city of Jerusalem, and to lie on his left side for three hundred ninety days. This period of time, my friend noted, is half of the average synodic period of the planet Mars.

That observation appeared to me to be very significant, because it recalls a blog post I published back in  February of 2013, discussing the planetary positions which were then prevailing in the predawn sky, in which Mercury and Mars were visible above the horizon prior to sunrise, with Mercury actually a little bit higher than Mars. 

In that post, I noted that if the arguments presented in Hamlet's Mill (1969) were correct, then we should be able to find a myth related to such a situation -- perhaps a myth in which Mercury (or Hermes) takes on a superior role in some way to Mars (Ares). As it turns out, just such a story is related in the text of the Iliad, when Ares is imprisoned in a brazen jar by two giant brothers named Otus and Ephialtes, and Hermes must come rescue Ares before he wastes away altogether.

As it turns out, the backdrop of stars at the very time of the writing of that blog, through which the planets Mars and Mercury were passing from the perspective of an observer on Earth, was the constellation Aquarius -- and in that 2013 blog post as well as in an early video about the same myth which I made about a year and a half later, I argue that the story of Ares being imprisoned in the jar probably has to do with the passage of the planet Mars through the zodiac constellation of Aquarius.

In addition, I noted that the text of the Iliad explains that Ares was imprisoned in the brazen jar for thirteen months -- half of the synodic period of the planet Mars -- which is why the question about Ezekiel 4, and the fact that the prophet is instructed to lie on one side for three hundred ninety days, reminded me of that passage from the Iliad and the story of Ares and the giants.

Three hundred ninety days, of course, corresponds to thirteen months -- if you take thirty days as a month, and multiply thirty times thirteen, you will get three hundred ninety.

This connection between the Iliad and the events in chapter 4 of the book of Ezekiel, and the mutual connection to the cycle of the orbit of Mars and its position relative to Earth, appears to me to be very significant. 

Because the mechanics of synodic cycles, and the explanation of the myth of Ares and the giants as it relates to the motions of the planets through the constellation Aquarius, can be somewhat complicated, I made this new video entitled "Mars connection between Ezekiel and the Iliad" in order to show the celestial mechanics and correspondences a little more visually.

Before you argue that months on earth are not always exactly thirty days long, and that therefore any argument about a connection between the Ares story in the Iliad and the siege of Ezekiel in Ezekiel chapter 4 is tenuous at best, please have a look at all the evidence discussed in the video. As the video explains, the actual synodic period of Mars and Earth varies somewhat due to the mechanics of their orbits, but the average is 25.6 months -- so 26 months is actually a "rounded" number to begin with. However, there are plenty of other instances in the myths in which numbers are rounded in order to encode them in myth more readily -- the most notable of these being the precessional constant itself, which is 71.6 years but which is encoded in ancient myth using the precessional number 72 and various multiples thereof.

These connections between ancient myths and scriptures from cultures spread literally across the entire globe has serious ramifications for our understanding of humanity's ancient history. It appears quite likely that the world-wide system of celestial metaphor which informs the ancient myths may have come from a culture of great antiquity, even predating the earliest civilizations known to conventional historians -- earlier than the cultures of ancient Egypt, ancient Mesopotamia, ancient China, or the ancient Indus-Saraswati civilization.

Further, this ancient system demonstrates an understanding of concepts which are not well understood even by modern physics -- including the impact which the relative positions of the planets can have on measurable phenomena here on our planet. See, for example, the discussion in this previous post entitled "The gods are real," which is mentioned in this new video as well.

I hope you enjoy this new video about the connection between the Iliad and the book of Ezekiel, and the evidence that both of them were demonstrate an awareness of the importance of the motions of other planets relative to our own. And thank you to everyone who interacts with the things I've written or posted in videos -- all of your comments and insights are helpful to me and to the process of trying to understand the ancient language of celestial metaphor which the world's precious myths and sacred traditions are speaking, so that we can hear their message today and apply it to our lives.

image: Wikimedia commons (link).

The image above is from the early 10th century AD, circa AD 920.
The name "Ezekiel" is clearly indicated in the artwork itself.

The video above discusses the clear celestial references contained in this illustration to the constellations Virgo, Bootes, and Coma Berenices. Those familiar with the constellations of the night sky may also find other celestial connections in the artwork, including a possible reference to the constellation Crater, which is located close to Virgo in the sky.

Wednesday, December 27, 2017

Introducing Ancient Myths, Ancient Wisdom

In October of this year (2017), I announced that this blog had reached its first thousandth post.

I had already conceived the idea of celebrating those first one thousand posts with a book containing a selection of posts from the blog thus far, arranged thematically into the eight categories described in that one thousandth post.

It took a little longer for that book to make it to print, but it is finally here -- just in time to be published in 2017!

And I'm happy to announce that I am very pleased with the outcome.

Entitled Ancient Myths, Ancient Wisdom: Recovering humanity's forgotten inheritance through Celestial Mythology, the book is 866 pages in length adorned with 216 illustrations, photographs, diagrams, maps, and star charts. 

You can see the table of contents and some sample content by clicking on the title in the preceding paragraph, or by clicking on the cover illustration above. Of course, you can also visit the "Books" section of my primary website at, where you can click on the cover images of any of my books to see sample content and tables of contents.

The selected blog posts are grouped into the following eight sections:
  • Esotericism and the Ancient System
  • Celestial Mechanics and the Heavenly Cycles
  • The Invisible Realm and the Shamanic
  • Star Myths and Astrotheology
  • Self and Higher Self
  • The Inner Connection to the Infinite
  • Humanity's Forgotten History
  • Two Visions
Of course, you can actually read all the content found in this new book for free on this blog, simply by searching for keywords related to the above categories. Some people might wonder, therefore, why collect certain blog posts and publish them in a physical volume, especially when anyone can simply go onto the web and read them for free. 

There are several reasons that I decided to release such a book. Some of those reasons include:

a) There are now over a thousand blog posts -- and "flipping through" them on the internet in order to find good things to read from blog posts published over the course of several years is nowhere near as easy as is flipping through the actual pages of a book.

b) I feel that some of my best writing is done on the pages of this blog. A blog by its nature lends itself to an easy and informal tone, and it also invites a format of writing that used to be known as essays (Nathaniel Hawthorne, whose writing I enjoy very much, was an accomplished essayist, in addition to being an accomplished writer of fiction in the form of short stories and novels). I felt that it would be worthwhile to collect some of the best essays from the first one thousand blog posts into a book for those who enjoy reading them in that form rather than merely online.

c) A book can go places where there is no internet connection or electricity or cell signal, although in the modern world such places are becoming harder and harder to find. You can take a book to the beach without worrying about it being ruined by the sand. You can take a book to a remote cabin in the woods which is lit only by a lantern and a fireplace (or a pot-bellied stove). You can take a book on a trip to another country where your phone may not have easy access to internet coverage. And you can read a book by candlelight or climber's headlamp if there is an extended power outage. 

d) This book groups the selected essays into helpful thematic categories, which makes it easier to follow the development of various themes (unlike the blog, where those themes develop over long periods of time and where the subject from one post to another typically jumps around between various themes, weaving in and out of several different subjects before returning to a previous one). The essays in the book are arranged chronologically within each theme, such that they go from oldest to newest in the first theme (essays about esotericism and the ancient system of celestial metaphor) and then starting again going from oldest to newest in the next theme (essays about celestial mechanics and the heavenly cycles), and so forth.

e) Although one of the strengths of the online format is the ability to link to previous posts or to other subject matter, throughout this book I have included "links" whenever possible in the form of page numbers to other posts that are mentioned. These page numbers are included in "superscript" (like the number which would normally refer to a footnote in other books), but instead of referring to a footnote or an endnote, these numbers point you to pages where you can find the post being referenced. Of course, many posts were not able to fit into this book: it contains precisely ninety-six essays from the first one thousand posts, which takes up 866 pages of print (including pictures). When a post is mentioned that is not included in the book, I have tried to include the date of that post so that the interested reader can find it online if necessary.  

f) While it is true that books made of paper cost money and that there is no charge for reading posts on this blog online, it is generally not true that getting access to the blog is "free." Most men and women have to pay for access to the internet itself, through a business entity known as an internet service provider (usually a cable company or a phone service "carrier"). The monthly cost of this access is usually more than the one-time cost of this book, every single month for as long as you want to access the internet. If you miss one or at most two or three such monthly payments, you will soon find that you have no more access to the free content on the blog. 

g) No internet service provider can slow down the page-loading of any of the pages in this book, once it is in your possession.

This book has a very satisfying size and heft, and I believe you will like it very much. At least, I hope that you will.

Like all of my other books, it is available through most booksellers, because it is distributed by Ingram, one of the largest distributors in the business. You can ask your local bookseller -- or local library -- to order it for you, although they may tell you that it will take a few weeks.

You can also order it for rapid delivery from the giant booksellers, such as Barnes & Noble, which have the book in stock and can get it to you in a couple of days. Mega-giant online retailer Amazon also carries the book, with a "look inside" feature where you can see even more pages than you can see in the online sample linked above. 

I hope that you will choose to add Ancient Myths, Ancient Wisdom to your home library (or to the library of your favorite college, high school, small town, large municipality, university, sailboat, or remote cabin). You don't actually have to read it by candlelight or Coleman lantern, although you may find it enjoyable to do so, and while you do, you can also think about how nice it is to be off the internet for a little while. 

Monday, December 25, 2017

Welcome to new visitors from the Other Side of Midnight (and returning friends)!

Thank you to Richard Hoagland and team for inviting me over to the Other Side of Midnight show for a special Christmas Eve discussion of the connection between the world's ancient wisdom and the heavenly cycles of the stars and planets. Thanks also to one of the regular listeners and contributors to that show who recommended me as a guest for a Christmas Eve special.

Welcome to new visitors to this site who learned about it through last night's (this morning's) interview!

You can listen to a replay of our conversation the show by going to this webpage and clicking on the triangular "play" button.

You can also use the embedded audio player below:

Additionally, you can download the file to a portable device, laptop, desktop, or other mp3 player by using your "right-click" or "control-click" on this link and then selecting "download linked file as" in order to select a place to download the file onto your device.

Wherever you decide to listen to the interview, you'll want to refer to the eight slides which are posted in the "Radio in Pictures" section of the Other Side of Midnight website containing visual references for the discussion of the Visit of the Magi (Star of Bethlehem) episode found in the second chapter of the canonical Gospel According to Matthew. 

Regular visitors to this blog will be familiar with my explication of that particular gospel episode, which is based upon the analysis presented by the Reverend Robert Taylor (1784 - 1844) in a series of lectures given in November of 1830 and transcribed in the collection published under the title The Devil's Pulpit in 1857 (links to an online edition of that text and the other collection of his lectures which is entitled Astronomico-Theological Lectures can both be found on the "Resources" page of my main website at

In particular, there is a video containing discussion of the Visit of the Magi passages from Matthew 2 in the recent Skies Over Grimerica segment for December 2017 which can be viewed here.

However, even if you are familiar with previous discussions of the Matthew 2 episode, you may want to give a listen to last night's (this morning's) interview for some of the other subjects we discussed in our wide-ranging conversation.

Below are a few helpful links to previous posts which go deeper into some of the concepts touched on during the interview:
Obviously, there are points regarding the narrative of humanity's ancient history upon which Richard Hoagland and I would disagree, but everyone must agree that Richard was an extremely gracious host and that the entire interview was very positive, as was the Q&A discussion at the end of the interview portion, and I felt very welcomed by Richard and his entire team. I'm grateful for the opportunity to present my research to those who may not have heard about it before and who might find it helpful to their own lives and their own interaction with the world's ancient wisdom, preserved in the precious inheritance of humanity's myths, scriptures and sacred stories. 

I am convinced that the ancient myths contain wisdom that is intended for the benefit of all men and women, wisdom that is sorely needed in the perilous times in which we presently live, when deception is deliberately employed as a tool to prevent the majority of the people from seeing what is really going on in the world.

Friday, December 22, 2017

Celestial correspondences in the Pylos Combat Agate connect it to myths and art from other cultures around the globe

Top image of Pylos Combat Agate from Wikimedia commons (link here), colorized. 
Bottom image by the author, using stars from the free open-source planetarium app Stellarium.

Previously, I wrote about the amazing and newly-discovered artifact found in the region of Pylos (on the western edge of the Peloponnese), an agate measuring just 37 millimeters across, upon which an ancient artist (or team of artists) had inscribed a combat scene featuring three figures, with a level of anatomical detail and artistic sophistication that has astonished scholars and art historians

The find, dubbed the Pylos Combat Agate, was one of thousands of artifacts contained in a (previously) undisturbed shaft-grave identified as that of a warrior from the Mycenaean civilization and thought to date to approximately 1,500 BC. The archaeologists who worked on the excavations dubbed the warrior who was buried in the grave the "Griffin Warrior," after an ivory plaque with griffin artwork which was found between the legs of the body (see discussion in this fascinating article from the Smithsonian magazine, published in January of 2017, before the limestone-encrusted artwork on the Pylos Agate had been cleaned-off and revealed to the world again after 3,500 years).

One of the archaeologists who led the team involved in the discovery and excavation of the tomb and the discovery of the gemstone, Shari Stocker, stated: "This seal should be included in all forthcoming art history texts, and will change the way that prehistoric art is viewed" (cited in this article from the Telegraph). 

I could not agree more: this find does indeed rank as an extremely important discovery -- all the more so because the artistic conventions in the incredibly small and detailed sealstone image can be shown to match other artwork which corresponds to specific constellations in the night sky, and that this previously-unknown piece belongs to an ancient tradition of reflecting the heavens in art and in myth, a tradition which is found literally around the globe.

When the first images of the Pylos Combat Agate were published, I immediately noticed that the artwork appears to embody aspects of the constellations Hercules, Ophiucus, Scorpio and Sagittarius, in ways that are found in other artwork from other cultures and other centuries. Here is a link to a paper which I wrote within a few hours of seeing the images of the Pylos Agate for the first time, in early November. 

Unfortunately, no scholarly journals devoted to archaeology or ancient history to which I submitted that paper were interested in publishing it. Eventually, a shortened version was published in a popular online magazine, Ancient Origins, which you can read here.

However, due to the limitations of space and scope, neither of those two articles showed the full range of the evidence which supports the conclusion that the scene on the Pylos Combat Agate is patterned upon celestial foundations, and that it displays unmistakable correspondences to mythological details ranging from the Hebrew Scriptures to the Maui cycle of the cultures of the Pacific Islands.

A more complete discussion of those correspondences has now been published on this page of my primary website,, and that discussion can also be reached via the "Resources" page of that site (a link at the bottom of any page of the site will take you to the "Resources" page).

That discussion shows that the figures on the Pylos Agate line up with the constellations Hercules, Ophiucus, Corona Borealis, Scorpio, and Sagittarius -- correspondences which are also explained in the other two previous essays linked above, my unpublished paper and the shorter article in Ancient Origins. But it also shows that specific conventions found in the Pylos Agate artwork from 1500 BC can be shown to be part of a tradition of celestial correspondences which continued to appear in fine artwork for more than two thousand years after the Pylos Agate was sealed within the tomb of the "Griffin Warrior."

For instance, the figure I call "the Swordsman" in the Pylos Agate artwork (shaded in red on the illustrations in my previous articles and in the image of the sealstone shown above) can be seen to be grasping the curved crest of the helmet of the figure I refer to as "the Spearman."

This detail, in addition to the general outline of the Swordsman's body posture, confirms that the Swordsman corresponds to the figure of the constellation Hercules in the night sky -- for Hercules is located very close to the brilliant arc of stars which form the Northern Crown (Corona Borealis), and there are numerous myths from around the world in which a figure who corresponds to Hercules grasps a figure which corresponds to the Northern Crown.

Among those myths, which I have written about in previous posts, are the story of the Judgment of Solomon from the text of 1 Kings chapter 3, in which Solomon instructs a swordsman to cut a living baby in two (see previous post here and video here):

image: Wikimedia commons (link).

In the above painting, from the 1600s, we see a powerful swordsman with a sword held over his back, grasping an infant by the heel. The infant is arching his body vigorously -- as infants will indeed do when they are upset. The swordsman in this case corresponds to the constellation Hercules, and the arching infant corresponds to the Northern Crown, or Corona Borealis, which is close enough to Hercules in the night sky for us to imagine the constellation reaching out to grasp it.

Other myths from around the world also feature a Hercules figure grasping an infant -- notably, the story of baby Maui from the Maui cycle of myths found across the cultures of the islands of the vast Pacific Ocean, from Hawai'i to Aotearoa (New Zealand). In the Maui stories, baby Maui is described as being thrown into the sea foam by his parents, who do not want him. The child is protected by seaweed and jellyfish so that he does not perish, until his mighty grandfather Tama of the Sky rescues the abandoned baby Maui and hangs him up in the rafters to dry above the fire.

In that myth, Tama is again Hercules, and the baby is Corona Borealis (which is indeed located high up in the "rafters" of the sky, not far from the north celestial pole). The fire in this case corresponds to the smoky column of the Milky Way galaxy, which rises up towards Hercules as can be seen in the star chart at the top of this post.

Other myths and stories involving Hercules grasping Corona Borealis which have been discussed in the pages of this blog (as well as in books I have written which were published long before the Pylos Combat Agate artwork was revealed) include the "rapture" described in Revelation chapter 12 (see discussion in this previous post and in this previous video), as well as the story which begins the entire cycle of tales in the Thousand Nights and a Night (also known as the Thousand and One Nights, or the Arabian Nights), in which Shah Zaman departs from his palace to visit his brother King Shahryar, but forgets a string of jewels which Zaman had intended to bring with him as a gift.

When Shah Zaman returns to get the necklace, he discovers his wife in the act of having sexual relations with another man, and immediately draws his scimitar and cuts both his wife and her lover in half (cutting "the two into four pieces," as the text says). Once again, a figure who is reaching for a string of jewels while swinging a mighty sword can be seen to correspond to Hercules and the shining arc of the Northern Crown, as discussed in these two previous posts from October of 2014 (here and here).

Other figures in the Pylos Agate also have correspondences to constellations, as well as to artwork found in cultures around the world. As discussed in my earlier articles linked above, the Spearman has clear correspondences to the outline of the constellation Ophiucus in the night sky. Ophiucus is located immediately below Hercules in the heavens, and thus it is understandable that in some mythical episodes he corresponds to a figure who is slain by a Hercules figure (although in other myths Ophiucus corresponds to a descendent of a Hercules figure, which is also understandable and reveals intriguing aspects of this ancient world-wide system of patterning myths on the stars).

In my book Star Myths of the World, Volume Three (Star Myths of the Bible), published in 2016, I provide an extended discussion which argues that the giant Goliath, slain by David with his sling, corresponds to  the towering figure of Ophiucus in the night sky. There are numerous details in the description of Goliath in the scriptural text (specifically in 1 Samuel chapter 17) which reveal that Goliath corresponds to Ophiucus, including the description of his armor. Note that the Spearman in the Pylos Agate scene is also heavily-armored, and that (like Goliath) he carries a spear.

In the confrontation between David and Goliath, David wields a sling -- and the weapon brandished above the head of the constellation Hercules could easily be envisioned as a sling rather than as the sword or club it usually plays in other myths. Furthermore, after David has stunned Goliath with a stone from his sling, the text describes David as taking the mighty sword of Goliath and cutting off his head. Below is a painting of David slaying Goliath from about the year 1616, in which David can clearly be seen to be portrayed in a manner which corresponds to the outline of Hercules:

image: Wikimedia commons (link).

Note that David in the artwork above has placed one foot on the side of Goliath's head -- a detail which can be seen to correspond to the outlines of Hercules and Ophiucus in the heavens (see star chart at the top of this post).

This correspondence shows that the identification of the Swordsman and the Spearman in the Pylos Combat Agate scene with the constellations Hercules and Ophiucus (respectively) is well-founded, and that it also aligns closely with sacred stories from other cultures (as well as with artistic conventions which appear to have continued to be employed for thousands of years after the Griffin Warrior was laid to rest in his tomb).

My previous articles also demonstrate that the goddess Athena almost certainly corresponds to Ophiucus in the heavens. It is well known that artwork depicting Athena often depicts her with a helmet, a spear, and the fringed Aegis -- and a close look at the Pylos Combat Agate will reveal that the Spearman is also depicted as wearing a helmet, wielding a spear, and wearing a sort of fringed garment which can be seen beneath his shield, between his legs.

Finally, the outline of the third figure in the Pylos Agate artwork, whom I refer to as the Fallen Warrior in the scene, can be seen to be depicted with details which correspond to the features of Scorpio and Sagittarius in the heavens, both constellations which are located beneath both Ophiucus and Hercules in the night sky.

As noted in my earlier articles, the constellation Scorpio plays the role of a wounded warrior in other ancient myths, as well as in ancient artwork such as the scene on the Greek bell-krater from the early sixth century BC depicting Artemis slaying the unfortunate young hunter Actaeon:

The correspondences between the figures of Artemis and Actaeon from the ancient artwork and the figures of Sagittarius and Scorpio in the heavens should be obvious.

Additionally, the arrangement of the arms of the Fallen Warrior in the artwork on the Pylos Combat Agate show that the ancient artist (or artists) was using artistic conventions for figures associated with  this region of the sky in other artwork from other centuries, depicting sacred stories from other cultures.

Specifically, I have previously argued that the convention of draping a hand over the head corresponds to the constellation Sagittarius, and that it has to do with the "plume" or line of stars which we can see rising up on the left side of the outline of the head of Sagittarius in the above image (and in the star-chart at the top of this post).

Below is a painting from the year 1665 of the episode in Genesis commonly referred to as "Jacob's Ladder" or "Jacob's Dream," in which Jacob has a vision of a stair or ladder reaching from the earth up to the heavens, and angels ascending and descending upon it (Genesis 28). Jacob is asleep with his head upon the stone at the lower left corner of the painting, in red:

image: Wikimedia commons (link).

Note the configuration of the arms of the figure of Jacob as depicted by artist Salvatore Rosa (1615 - 1673) and compare them to the positioning of the arms of the Fallen Warrior in the scene from the Pylos Combat Agate from 1500 BC (or earlier). The correspondence could not be more compelling!

In Star Myths of the World (2016), I spend some time discussing the celestial details in the above painting, and in other depictions of the Genesis 28 episode of "Jacob's Ladder." Artist Salvatore Rosa has clearly envisioned Jacob as corresponding to the position of Sagittarius in the night sky, and the ladder stretching to heaven is of course the shining band of the Milky Way galaxy, which rises up between Sagittarius and Scorpio. The brightest and widest part of the Milky Way is found just above the point where it passes between Sagittarius and Scorpio -- this brightest, widest portion corresponds to the Galactic Core -- and you can see that Salvatore Rosa has painted the clouds in a manner which is suggestive of that very portion of the Milky Way.

The angels which the scriptural text describes as ascending and descending upon the ladder in Jacob's Vision almost certainly correspond to the winged figures of the constellations Aquila and Cygnus, the two great birds of the Milky Way galaxy, one of which can be seen to be flying upwards (or ascending) in the Milky Way band, and the other of which can be seen to be flying downwards (descending). This detail, as well as others in that text, confirm that the sleeping Jacob corresponds to either Sagittarius or Scorpio (or perhaps a combination of the two).

Below is another example, this time from a painting of Bathsheba at her bath, by Artemisia Gentileschi (1593 - 1656):

image: Wikimedia commons (link).

This is another painting which I discuss at some length in Star Myths of the Bible (see for example pages 156 - 157 and 530 - 535). Bathsheba almost certainly corresponds to the constellation Sagittarius in the night sky, and I should not have to point out that the positioning of her arms once again corresponds to the positioning of the arms found in the artwork on the Pylos Combat Agate for the figure of the Fallen Warrior.

It is certainly remarkable that this artistic convention appears to be in use in artwork conceived before 1500 BC and in artwork conceived in the 1600s AD (and later)!

Taken together, they form compelling evidence for the existence of a worldwide system of celestial metaphor which informs ancient myth and ancient artwork in cultures literally around the globe and across vast gulfs of time.

The fact that the Pylos Combat Agate was not even unearthed until after I had written about these correspondences makes it an extremely conclusive piece of confirmatory evidence for the widespread operation of this system in antiquity. Added to the fact that it such an early piece of artwork, and such a technically and artistically sophisticated artifact, the Pylos Combat Agate becomes a truly paradigm-shifting discovery.

I wholeheartedly agree with lead archaeologist Shari Stocker when she says that, "This seal should be included in all forthcoming art history texts, and will change the way that prehistoric art is viewed."

In fact, when seen in the context of the world-wide system of celestial metaphor of which it is a stunning example, the Pylos Combat Agate should change the way we view all of ancient history.